For instance: The Scientific Opinion
About consortium subscription Contacts
(812) 4095364 Non-commercial partnership
St. Petersburg


"Humanities and Science University Journal" №9 (Art history, philology and historical sciences), 2014.

The 21 st Century Trends of the Russian Language: Intralinguistic and Extralinguistic Aspects

N. Yudina, T. Sildus
Price: 50 руб.
 The article presents an analysis of several internal and external tendencies of Russian language development at the beginning of the 21st century within contemporary world synergetic trends. The extralinguistic aspect determines interrelations between the laws of language evolution and the laws of society development when applied to the present-day globalization, socio-political, and socio-cultural processes. The intralinguistic peculiarities are focused on several changes in phonetics, lexis, semantics, word formation, morphology, syntax, as well as orthography and punctuation of Modern Russian language. The authors of the article draw a conclusion about the superdynamic change of both the Russian language and its place in the system of world languages in the 21st century, that, unfortunately, might not always be treated as the ameliorative tendency of its development.
Key words: the Russian language, the 21 st century, extra- and intralinguistic aspect.

Experts in the humanities and sciences distinguish between various political, economic, industrial and technological, demographic, ecological, scientific, cultural, social, legal, etc. trends specific to the development of world civilization in the 21st century. Language is one of the significant semiotic communicative systems, “a system of communication by written or spoken words, which is used by the people of a particular country or area” [9], “a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings; form or manner of verbal expression” , which serves to generate, work over and preserve information created and kept for thousands of years. It tends to be a unifier for the trends mentioned above and yet not described.
As of the 21st century, linguists have not come to a unanimous conception of the number of languages functioning in the world. They refer to radically different figures: from less than 3,000 to more than 6,000 languages, basically due to the ambiguity of criteria distinguishing between a language and a dialect (e.g., A. Meillet and M. Cohen in their review of world languages refer to 2,796 languages) [10]. According to some statistical data, however, only 95 languages have the status of official languages.
Throughout the development of human civilization, the language superiority of a certain language providing international communication has changed due to objective and subjective intra- or extralinguistic causes. It is well-known that in the ancient world Greek had a dominant position. Later it was replaced by Latin in Europe and Arabic in Asia, and they kept hold of their superiority till the late Middle Ages. In the 21st century one can attest to the great influence of French. The 21st century was marked by a competitive character of two models of language globalization: that of the West, which promoted and is still promoting English in the 21st century, and the Soviet Model focusing basically on Russian.
In this respect, the aim of the present article is to determine the main internal and external tendencies of the development of the Russian language in the 21st century within the context of modern global synergetic trends.
The analyses of domestic and foreign statistical and scientific-analytical resources makes it possible to figuratively divide the 21st century trends of the Russian language into two types: extralinguistic and intralinguistic.
1. Alpatov V. M. Problemy dvuyazychiya i yazykov natsional’nykh men’shinstv (Problems of Bilingualism and Languages of Ethnic Minorities) // Rechevoye obshcheniye
v usloviyakh yazykovoy neodnorodnosti (Speech Communication within the Language
Inhomogenuity) / ed. by L. P. Krysin. M., 2000.
2. Borger Ya. V. Partsellirovannye konstruktsii kak pokazatel’ rechevoy intentsii
adresanta (Parceling Constructions as an Indicator of Addressant’s Speech Intention) // Yazyk i stil’ sovremennych sredstv massovoy informatsii (Language and Style of Modern Mass Media). M.: MGUP, 2007. P. 39–44.
3. Gorbachevich K. S. Izmeneniye norm russkogo literaturnogo yazika (Changes in
the Norms of the Russian Literary Language). L., 1971.
4. Gorbachevich K. S. Variantnost’ slova i yazykovaya norma (Variation of a Word
and Language Norm). L., 1978.
5. Gorbachevich K. S. Normy sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo yazyka (Norms
of Modern Russian Literary Language). 3d ed. M.: Prosveshcheniye, 1989.
6. Isayev M. I. Russkiy yazik na postsovetskom prostranstve (The Russian Language
in the Post-Soviet States) // IV International Science Conference “Language. Culture.
Society”. M., 2007. P. 96–102.
7. Kassatkina R. F. Izmeneniya v prosodicheskoy sisteme russkogo literaturnogo
yazika (Changes in the Prosodic System of the Russian Literary Language) // Sovremenniy russkiy yazik: Aktivnye protsessy na rubezhe XX–XXI vekov (Modern Russian Language: Active Processes at the Turn of the XXth–XXIst cc.). M.: Yaziki slavyanskich kul’tur, 2008. P. 375–398.
8. Kostomarov V. G. Yazykovoy vkus epokhi: iz nablyudeniy nad rechevoy praktikoy
mass-media (Linguistic Fashion of the Time: Mass-Media speech Practice Reviewed).
M.: Pedagogika-Press, 1994.
9. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English // http://www.ldoceonline.com/
10. Meillet A., Cohen M. Les langues du monde, nouv. ed. P., 1952.
11. Moiseyev A.I. K razlicheniyu dlinnych i korotkich slov v sovremennom russkom
yazike (On the Distinction of Long and Short Words in Modern Russian Language) //
Problemy teoreticheskoy i prikladnoy fonetiki i obucheniye proiznosheniyu (Problems
of Theoretical and Applied Phonetics and Pronunciation Teaching). M., 1973.
12. Rekommendatsii 2013 – Rekommendatsii uchastnikov “kruglogo stola” po
teme “Zakonodatel’noye obespecheniye razvitiya russkogo yazika v sovremennom
informatsionnom prostranstve” (The Recommendations suggested by the participants
of the “round table” on “Legal assurance of the Russian language development in modern media scene”). M.: Gosudarstvennaya Duma Federal’nogo Sobraniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 6 iyunya 2013.
13. Russkiy yazik kontsa XX stoletiya (1985–1995) (The Russian Language at the
end of the XXth c.). M., 1996.
14. Shcherba L. V. Jazykovaya sistema i rechevaya deyatel’nost’ (Language System
and Speech Activity). M.: Editorial URSS, 2004.
15. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary // http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/language.
16. TSRYa 2000 – Tolkovyi slovar’ russkogo jazyka kontsa XX veka. Jazykovie
izmeneniya. (The Russian Language Explanatory Dictionary of the End of the XXth c.
Language Changes) / ed. by G.N. Sklyarevskaya. Saint-Petersburg: Folio-Press, 2000.
17. Valgina N. S. Aktivnye protsessy v sovremennom russkom yazike (Active Processes in Modern Russian Language). M., 2003.
18. Yazik i nauka kontsa XX veka (Language and Science in the end of the XXth c.).
M., 1995.
19. Yudina N. V. Russkiy yazyk v XXI veke: krizis? evolyutsiya? progress? (The Russian Language in the XXIst Century: Crisis? Evolution? Progress?). M.: Gnozis, 2010.
20. Zakon Frantsii № 94-665 ot 04.08.1994 ob upotreblenii frantsuzskogo yazika
(The Law of France № 94-665 dated 04.08.1994 on the French language use) / trans.
from French I. V. Ponkin // http://state-religion.ru/world/34-zakon-francii-94-665-ot-
21. Zyazikov M. M. K voprosu o roli russkogo yazyka v usloviyach globalizatsii
(The role of the Russian Language within Globalization Reviewed) // http://etnosocium.
Price: 50 рублей
To order